Chapter 3 Guide: For the next exam, you should know: The major discoveries and the scientist who made them (do not focus on dates just what and who) The models of the atom, the progression and what discovery led to the new model The following Laws/Theories: o The Law of Conservation of Matter o The Law of Definite Proportions o The Law of Multiple Proportions o The Theory of Radioactivity The identity of alpha and beta particles, the result of the each type of decay and how to generate a correct nuclear equation. How to correctly determine the number of each subatomic particle in a given element based on the mass and atomic # on the periodic table or from a given nuclear symbol How to calculate average atomic mass for an element given isotope mass and % abundance How to calculate molar mass for compounds How to use Dimensional Analysis to convert between moles, mass and particles (atoms, molecules or units) How to use data to prove any or all of the laws as discussed when we covered calculations in class To prepare for the exam, I suggest you review notes, consider the topics I stressed in class and that we explored in the labs. Read through the chapter in the book. Work through the content in advance, do not wait until the day before to review. This content can seem simple but the application of the concepts and calculations can become difficult it you do not seek assistance as soon as you encounter difficulty. Complete your assignments as they are given and get help when you come across a problem you cannot solve. Prepare early, prepare well and good luck!
Objectives: Analyze the historical development of the atomic theory. Define the term atom. Discuss Dalton's atomic theory, integrating it into the historical development of the atom. Explain the Law of Conservation of Mass, the Law of Definite Composition, & the Law of Multiple Proportions, citing real-world examples that illustrate each law. Explain, sketch, and discuss Thompson's and Rutherford's main experiments, correla ting the experiments lead to their models of the atom. Compare and contrast the subatomic particles & justify why atoms are neutral. Describe the make up, volume, & density of the nucleus vs. the electron cloud. Define atomic number. Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a given atom. Define isotopes and atomic mass. Understand the relationship and meaning of atomic number and mass number. Calculate the average atomic mass of an element, given the percent abundance and a tomic masses of each isotope of an element. Apply Mole relationships to convert between moles, mass and particles Essential Questions: 1. What scientists are associated with the development of the atomic theory? 2. What chemical laws can be explained by Dalton's Atomic Theory? 3. How can experiments that led to the characterization of the nucleus & the discovery of the electrons be explained? 4. How did the classic atomic experiments lead to the various models of the atom? 5. Can you relate the nicknames of the models of the atom to their structures? 6. Can you compare and contrast Dalton, Thompson's, & Rutherford's Models of the Atom? 7. What is the general description of the atom? Can you explain why atoms are neutral? 8. Why does atomic mass of isotopes vary for an element? 9. How would you determine average atomic mass of an element, given isotope data? 10. Given an element's atomic number & atomic mass, can you calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of the element? 11. What is a mole? 12. Why do we need to covert from moles to mass or number of particles? 13. Are you able to convert from moles to mass or number of particles