ACCELERATED VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM LIVESTOCK VALUE CHAIN COMPONENT
Gender Focus Group Discussion Tool Small Ruminants breeding
J.Kariuki1, G. Allesandra1, E. Oyieng1, J. Audho1 D. Milia2S. Jakinda2 and J.M.K. Ojango1 1
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Neighbours Initiative Alliance (NIA)
GENDER-SENSITIVE SMALL RUMINANT LIVESTOCK BREEDING
Focus Group Discussion Objectives 1) Understand gendered participation in SR livestock breeding and trait preferences for SR. 2) Identify the gendered opportunities and constraints faced by livestock keepers in SR management and along SR value chains. 3)
Explore the norms and customs that condition gendered access to and control over SR.
Respondents The FGDs are to be administered with separate groups of men and women from the same Core Innovation Group (CIG) in each study county. Note If it is not possible to meet with more than 5 CIG participants of either gender: - Consider an additional purposively selected 3 - 5 members who participated in the AVCD Breeding baseline survey FGD Introduction Introduction and purpose of FGD - Thank participants for attending the discussion - Introduce ourselves and the AVCD livestock breeding project briefly – perhaps with an update from the last AVCD field visit - Explain purpose of FGD and offer suggestions for how the information collected may be used Conduct - Despite collecting data on AVCD, establish neutrality and emphasise that the participants are the experts of their life worlds. Their honest contributions to the discussion will therefore increase the likelihood of better AVCD outcomes - Let the participants know that they should express and respect each other’s opinions - Let the participants know that they can feel free to ask questions at any point during the discussion - Ensure that the participants know this work will be treated in all confidentiality (no names will be included in the project reports)
Importance of being culturally sensitive (time, dress, speech, may also be required to start with a prayer) If the participants agree to the above, request consent for discussions to be recorded using a device as well as from taking notes
FGD Questions Key -
Main question o Follow up / probing questions Discussion questions (especially to solicit norms)
1. Livestock ownership -
The results from the baseline survey show that XX% MHH, YY% FHH and own livestock, while AA% and BB% of the FHH own sheep and goat respectively in this ward. How is ownership defined in this community? o What does it mean that a person owns ‘this’ goat, and another person does not own ‘this’ goat? According to the definitions provided on ownership (XXX), in MHH, who tends to own livestock? o Individual and/or joint? o Species-specific ownership? o How do you (men / women) normally acquire livestock? o How do you (men / women) normally sell of livestock? Purpose for and reasons for acquisition and sale? Who decides when to acquire / dispose? What happens in households where there are multiple wives as far as ownership, acquisition and disposal is concerned? o Do you consider the ownership of livestock (according to species mentioned) positive or negative for yourself and/or other members of your household? Why?
Purpose: - Offer insights on gendered perceptions of de jure and de facto ownership (Objective 3) - Discussion on norms and customs influencing access to and control over SR, presently and over time (Objective 3) - Explore perceptions around opportunities and constraints in SR ownership and management (Objective 2)
2. Trait preferences -
Do you tend to own individual animals that you ‘know’, perhaps due to behaviour, or appearance (eg. bulls, ewes, etc) What is meant by a ‘good’ sheep or a ‘good’ goat? o What are traits of importance? Discuss why What is meant by a ‘bad’ sheep or a ‘bad’ goat? o What are the traits of importance? Discuss why Do you have more good goats and sheep today compared to when you are growing up? o Has the definition of good and bad changed? Discuss why
3. Division of Labour: Breeding management - What activities are you (men / women) engaged in to ensure the qualities of the good goat / sheep are reproduced? o Are you managing breeding females? Drying off a female shoat before mating (i.e weaning the kid/lamb at the right time) or pregnant Selection of breeding females Tail docking o Are you managing breeding males? Methods to stop ‘bad’ males from mating (castration, selling, separation of rams from ewes) Heat detection Controlled mating (ensuring correct mating ratio of male to female/ managing number of fertile rams and ewes) o Are you practicing general herd management? Practice record keeping (could be just by ‘knowing’ which animals are related by blood or more formal with stud book) to avoid inbreeding (rotating rams) or promote genetic diversity; Manage flock composition through systematic inflows and outflows (culling, selling, purchasing of male/female shoats) o Are there any traditional approaches? For all of the above, how are decisions made regarding who shall do what and why … Do you engage in these activities independently? Or do you get advice, approval from others? o What are the dynamics in households with multiple wives? - Does the division of labour for the breeding activities mentioned above change according to season?
o If so, do you perceive changing roles as an opportunity or a constraint? Discuss why? Purpose: - Understand gendered participation in SR livestock breeding (Objective 1) - Identify the gendered opportunities and constraints along SR value chains (Objective 2) - Explore norms and customs that condition gendered access to and control over SR through breeding activities (Objective 3)
4. Division of Labour: Feeding - Earlier, it was discussed that XX makes a good goat / sheep. What activities are you (men / women) engaged in to maintain / enhance and reproduce the good qualities of the goat / sheep? o Possible suggestions for probing: Feeding, watering, grazing … If feeding is mentioned: which pasture / forages are considered the best for maintaining or reproducing the traits of preference? Who can access feeds? If watering is mentioned: what is the difference between water for human vs livestock consumption? Are there any special feeding arrangements for pregnant ewes, in preparation for and after lambing/kidding? Or for breeding rams/bucks? Are some livestock species offered preferential feeding over others? For all the above, who decides, how and why? - Before a female shoat is pregnant, do you practice a drying off period? Purpose: - Identify the gendered opportunities and constraints along SR value chains (Objective 2) - Explore norms and customs that condition gendered access to and control over SR through breeding activities (Objective 3)
5. Division of labour: Health management - Do you (men / women) detect sheep / goat illnesses? o If so, how? - If an illness is detected, what are the next steps? o Suggestions for probing: Spraying, indigenous treatments, culling, additional feeding, seeking help from external service o Who decides? Who pays? o Are there priorities over which type of shoats (young/old; male/female) or livestock (camel/shoat/cattle) receive treatment if whole flock is affected? - If external advice is mentioned (or access to training) o For whom, from whom (GoK/NGO) and for which livestock species? o If one person in the household /community has access to advice/training, is this advice shared?
o Was the advice that you received helpful? Purpose: - Understand gendered participation in SR livestock management which influences breeding outcomes (Objective 1)
6. Changes over time - Of the dynamics that you have mentioned above on livestock breeding and management (XXX), can you describe any social, environmental, economic, legal or political changes that have occurred which may have altered shoat / breeding management (and outcomes) since you were a child? o Discuss activities under different conditions (climate change, education, pastoralist drop outs) Purpose: - Document and understand gendered participation in SR breeding management over time (Objective 1) - A better understanding of the gendered opportunities and constraints faced by livestock keepers in SR management (Objective 2) - Explore changing norms regarding access, use, control related to SR management
7. Overall experiences and thoughts on AVCD SR Breeding component - What do participants think is the main strength of the AVCD SR breeding component (rank) o Why? - What do participants think is the main weakness of the AVCD SR breeding component (rank) o Why? - How can the AVCD SR breeding component produce better outcomes for men and women SR keepers? o What would be your priority outcomes as women / men o Why?
Purpose: - Capture the gendered opportunities and constraints that AVCD may introduce for SR livestock keepers (Objective 2)
Conclude - Thank respondent for their time and inform them of the next steps in AVCD project - Welcome further questions - Adhere to local customs