http://www.emeraldinsight.com.eserv.uum.edu.my/Insight/viewPDF.jsp?contentType=Article&Filename= html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0200250602.pdf Literature review hypotheses The ECSI framework The ECSI is derived from successful applications of the Swedish and American national customer satisfaction indices, designed to improve the measurement of customer satisfaction, and has been validated in such service industries as telecommunications, postal services and banks .Kristiansen et al. (2000, p. S1008) describe it as “a structural equation model with unobservable latent variables . . . that link customer satisfaction to its determinants and, in turn, to its consequence, namely customer loyalty”. The original ECSI model included customer expectations as an independent variable. Their role in determining perceived value is not discussed in the current study because the backpackers surveyed had stayed at the hostel for more than one night prior to the survey. Thus, their expectations would have been influenced by that experience, rather than other stays elsewhere. (This issue is addressed in greater detail in the Results section.) The revised model suggests that perceived value has an impact on satisfaction, which, in turn, is an antecedent to backpacker loyalty. Perceived value is assumed to result from a backpacker’s perceptions of the core service provided (termed “technical dimensions”), perceptions of service processes (termed “functional dimensions”), the image of the service provider (in this case, YHA Australia, a member of the Hostelling International Network) and the price of the accommodation. This conceptual framework is shown in Figure 1.Type in the content of your page here.